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Writing, Citing, Tutoring, and Studying Resources: Chicago

Chicago Citation Examples: Author/Date with Reference List

Here are some examples of how to document sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) Author/Date method, which is suggested for social and natural sciences. More examples are available on their Quick Guide: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The complete Manual is available behind the Reference Desk at Dayton Memorial Library (REDREF Z 253 .U69 2010). 

Please note: the current edition of the Chicago Manual of Style no longer requires access dates for electronic sources unless no date of publication or revision is available from the source (p. 657).

For citations in text, the general form is (Author Date). Citation examples, including some showing variance from the general form, are provided before each reference list example.

An Article from an Online Database:

(Hodge 2009)

Hodge, M. J. S. 2009. Capitalist Contexts for Darwinian Theory: Land, Finance, Industry and Empire.

   Journal of the History of Biology 42 (3): 399-416. doi:10.1007/s10739-009-9187-y.

If no DOI is available, use the URL from accessing the article or (if applicable) use the name of the database from which it was retrieved in place of the DOI.  Retrieval dates are not necessary. 

An Article from a Print Journal:

(Hafner 2009, 132) [to cite a specific page]

Hafner, Christian M. 2009. “Causality and Forecasting in Temporally Aggregated Multivariate GARCH

   Processes. “ Econometrics Journal 12 (1): 127-146.

An Article from an Online Newspaper or News Service:

(Cowen 2009)

Cowen, Tyler. 2009. “How a Little Inflation Could Help a Lot.” New York Times, August 1. http://www

   .nytimes.com/2009/08/02/business/economy/02view.html?scp=1&sq=economic%20history

   &st=cse.

A Book:

(Brauer and van Tuyll 2008)

Brauer, Jurgen and Hubert van Tuyll. 2008. Castles, Battles, and Bombs: How Economics Explains

   Military History. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

A Chapter from an Edited Book:

(Sokol 2008, 130) [to cite a specific page]

Sokol, Jason. (2008). Uneasy Executives: Governors and Civil Rights from the Bay State to the Old

   Dominion. In A Legacy of Information: Governors and Public Policy, edited by Ethan G. Sribnick, 124-

   148. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

A Web Site:

(Gayer 2011)

Gayer, Ted. (2011). “A Better Approach to Environmental Regulation: Getting the Costs and Benefits

   Right.” Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2011/05

   _environment_regulation_gayer/05_environment_regulation_gayer_paper.pdf.

 

(Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 2011) [if no year is available for websites, use an access date]

“Real Gross Domestic Product.” 2011. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Accessed May 20. http://

   research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/GDPCA?cid=106.

Chicago Citation Examples: Humanities -- Notes with Bibliography

Here are some examples of how to document sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) Humanities method, which is suggested for literature, history, and the arts. More examples are available on their Quick Guide: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The complete Manual is available behind the Reference Desk at Dayton Memorial Library (REDREF Z 253 .U69 2010).

Using this method of documentation requires notes (either footnotes or endnotes) and normally includes a bibliography.  If the bibliography is limited to only those sources used in the paper, the notes may follow the short form. Using a selective bibliography (with only some sources listed) or no bibliography at all requires the full version of the note (listed first in each example). If you wish to cite a specific section, your note (short or long) should include only the page number(s) for the cited material.  The complete page range for articles and book chapters is included in the bibliographic entry. The current edition of the Chicago Manual of Style no longer requires access dates for electronic sources unless no date of publication or revision is available from the source (p. 657).  Please consult your professor about the expectations for your paper's notes and bibliography.  Also, please note that many disciplines have modified the Chicago style for their own needs (e.g., music).  You may be required to consult additional sources to see examples of those modifications.  Again, your professor is the best source of information for citation requirements.

An Article from an Online Database:

Note:
   1. M. J. S. Hodge, "Capitalist Contexts for Darwinian Theory: Land, Finance, Industry and Empire,"

Journal of the History of Biology 42, no. 3 (2009): 412, doi:10.1007/s10739-009-9187-y.

Short form:

   1. Hodge, "Capitalist Contexts," 412.

Bibliography:

Hodge, M. J. S. "Capitalist Contexts for Darwinian Theory: Land, Finance, Industry and Empire." Journal

   of the History of Biology 42, no. 3 (2009): 399-416. doi:10.1007/s10739-009-9187-y.

If no DOI is available, use the URL from accessing the article or (if applicable) use the name of the database from which it was retrieved in place of the DOI.  Retrieval dates are not necessary. 

An Article from a Print Journal:

Note:

   3. Jonathan Porter, "'The Past is Present': The Construction of Macau's Historical Legacy," History &

Memory 21, no. 1 (2009): 72-73.

Short form:

   3. Porter, "Macau's Historical Legacy," 72-73.

Bibliography:

Porter, Jonathan. "'The Past is Present': The Construction of Macau's Historical Legacy." History &

   Memory 21, no. 1 (2009): 63-100.

An Article from an Online Newspaper or News Service:

Note:

   13. Tyler Cowen, "How a Little Inflation Could Help a Lot," New York Times, August 1, 2009, http://

www.nytimes.com/2009/08/02/business/economy/02view.html?scp=1&sq=economic%20history&st=

cse.

Short form:

   13. Cowen, "How a Little Inflation."

Bibliography:

Cowen, Tyler. "How a Little Inflation Could Help a Lot." New York Times, August 1, 2009. http://www

  .nytimes.com/2009/08/02/business/economy/02view.html?scp=1&sq=economic%20history&st=cse.

A Book:

Note:

   7. Jurgen Brauer and Hubert van Tuyll, Castles, Battles, and Bombs: How Economics Explains Military

History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 126.

Short form:

   7. Brauer and van Tuyll, Castles, Battles, and Bombs, 126.

Bibliography:

Brauer, Jurgen and Hubert van Tuyll. Castles, Battles, and Bombs: How Economics Explains Military

   History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

A Chapter from an Edited Book:

Note:

   32. Helen Lucero, "Art of the Santera," in Chicana Traditions: Continuity and Change, ed. Norma E.

Cantú and Olga Nájera-Ramírez (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2002), 39.

Short form:

   32. Lucero, "Art of the Santera," 39.

Bibliography:

Lucero, Helen. "Art of the Santera." In Chicana Traditions: Continuity and Change, edited by Norma E.

   Cantú and Olga Nájera-Ramírez, 35-55. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

A Web Site:
[include an access date if no publication date is available]

Note:

   14. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, "Rallying the Nation," accessed May 20, 2011, http://

www.ushmm.org/propaganda/themes/rallying-the-nation/.

Short Form:

   14. US Holocaust Memorial Museum, "Rallying the Nation."

Bibliography:

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Rallying the Nation." Accessed May 20, 2011. http://www

   .ushmm.org/propaganda/themes/rallying-the-nation/.

 An Online Primary Source from a Database:

Note:

   4. Diary of William Quesenbury Clayton, in American Civil War: Letters and Diaries, accessed May 20,

2011, http://solomon.cwld.alexanderstreet.com/.

Short form:

   4. Diary of William Quesenbury Clayton, American Civil War: Letters and Diaries.

Bibliography:

American Civil War: Letters and Diaries. Accessed May 20, 2011. http://solomon.cwld.alexanderstreet

   .com/.

A Musical Score:

Note:

   27. George Philipp Telemann, Sonata in G Major for Flute and Piano, in Four Sonatas for Flute and

Piano, ed. Milton Wittgenstein, 8. (New York: G. Schirmer, 1953).

Short form:

   27. Telemann, Sonata in G Major, 8.  

Bibliography:

Telemann, George Philipp. Sonata in G Major for Flute and Piano. In Four Sonatas for  Flute and Piano,

   ed. Milton Wittgenstein, 3-12. New York: G. Schirmer, 1953.

A Sound Recording from an Online Music Library:

Note:

   16. Carl Nielsen, Clarinet Concerto, Op. 57, Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Kees

Bakels, on Violin Concerto / Clarinet Concerto / Flute Concerto, Naxos 8.554189, accessed May 20, 2011,

http://regis.naxosmusiclibrary.com.

Short form:

   16. Nielsen, Clarinet Concerto.

Bibliography:

Nielsen, Carl. Clarinet Concerto, Op. 57. Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra. Kees Bakels. On Violin

   Concerto / Clarinet Concerto / Flute Concerto. Naxos 8.554189. Accessed May 20, 2011.  http://regis

   .naxosmusiclibrary.com.

A Photograph from an Online Source:
[using shortened URL when original is unwieldy and search function is available]

Note:

   26. Edward S. Curtis, "Old Warrior: Arapaho," photogravure, 1927 (Library of Congress, Washington,

DC), accessed May 20, 2011, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html.

Short form:

   26. Curtis, "Old Warrior".

Bibliography:

Curtis, Edward S. "Old Warrior: Arapaho," photogravure, 1927 (Library of Congress, Washington, DC).

   Accessed May 20, 2011. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html.

A Painting from a Book:

Note:

   5. Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair, oil on canvas, 1940 (Museum of Modern Art, New York),

in Contemporary Women Artists, edited by Laurie Collier Hillstrom and Kevin Hillstrom, (Detroit: St.

James Press, 1999), 334.

Short form:

   5. Kahlo, Self-Portrait.

Bibliography:

Kahlo, Frida. Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair, oil on canvas, 1940 (Museum of Modern Art, New York). In

   Contemporary Women Artists, edited by Laurie Collier Hillstrom and Kevin Hillstrom, 334. Detroit: St.

   James Press, 1999.

Chicago 15: Author/Date with Reference List

Here are some examples of how to document sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.) Author/Date method, which is suggested for social and natural sciences. More examples are available on their Quick Guide: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The complete Manual is available behind the Reference Desk at Dayton Memorial Library (REDREF Z 253 .U69 2003). 

For citations in text, the general form is (Author Date). Citation examples, including some showing variance from the general form, are provided before each reference list example.

An Article from an Online Database:

(Hodge 2009)

Hodge, M. J. S. 2009. Capitalist contexts for Darwinian theory: Land, finance, industry and empire.

   Journal of the History of Biology 42, no. 3:399-416, http://web.ebscohost.com/ (accessed August

   21, 2009).

An Article from a Print Journal:

(Hafner 2009, 132) [if needing to cite a specific page]

Hafner, Christian M. 2009. Causality and forecasting in temporally aggregated multivariate GARCH

   processes. Econometrics Journal 12, no. 1:127-146.

An Article from an Online Newspaper or News Service:

(Cowen 2009)

Cowen, Tyler. 2009. How a little inflation could help a lot. New York Times, August 1, 2009. http://

   www.nytimes.com/2009/08/02/business/economy/02view.html?scp=1&sq=economic%20history&

   st=cse (accessed August 21, 2009).

A Book:

(Brauer and van Tuyll 2008)

Brauer, Jurgen and Hubert van Tuyll. 2008. Castles, battles, and bombs: How economics explains

   military history. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

A Chapter from an Edited Book:

(Sokol 2008)

Sokol, Jason. (2008). Uneasy executives: Governors and civil rights from the Bay State to the Old

   Dominion. In A legacy of information: Governors and public policy, ed. Ethan G. Sribnick, 124-148.

   Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

A Web Site:

(Heritage Foundation) [no year given for Web sites]

Heritage Foundation. Methodology for the 10 economic freedoms. http://www.heritage.org/index/

   PDF/Index09_Methodology.pdf.

(Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Series: GDPCA; Real gross domestic product. http://research.

   stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/GDPCA?cid=106.

Chicago 15: Humanities -- Notes with Bibliography

Here are some examples of how to document sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.) Humanities method, which is suggested for literature, history, and the arts. More examples are available on their Quick Guide: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The complete Manual is available behind the Reference Desk at Dayton Memorial Library (REDREF Z 253 .U69 2003). 

Using this method of documentation requires notes (either footnotes or endnotes) and normally includes a bibliography.  If the bibliography is limited to only those sources used in the paper, the notes may follow the short form. Using a selective bibliography (with only some sources listed) or no bibliography at all requires the full version of the note (listed first in each example). If you wish to cite a specific section, your note (short or long) should include only the page number(s) for the cited material.  The complete page range for articles and book chapters is included in the bibliographic entry.

Please consult your professor about the expectations for your paper's notes and bibliography.  Also, please note that many disciplines have modified the Chicago style for their own needs (e.g., music).  You may be required to consult additional sources to see examples of those modifications.  Again, your professor is the best source of information for citation requirements.

An Article from an Online Database:

Note:

   1. M. J. S. Hodge, "Capitalist Contexts for Darwinian Theory: Land, Finance, Industry and Empire,"

Journal of the History of Biology 42, no. 3 (2009): 399-416, http://web.ebscohost.com/

(accessed August 21, 2009).

Short form:

   1. Hodge, "Capitalist Contexts," 412.

Bibliography:

Hodge, M. J. S. "Capitalist Contexts for Darwinian Theory: Land, Finance, Industry and Empire."

   Journal of the History of Biology 42, no. 3 (2009): 399-416. http://web.ebscohost.com/

   (accessed August 21, 2009).

An Article from a Print Journal:

Note:

   3. Jonathan Porter, "'The Past is Present': The Construction of Macau's Historical Legacy," History

& Memory 21, no. 1 (2009): 72-73.

Short form:

   3. Porter, "Macau's Historical Legacy," 72-73.

Bibliography:

Porter, Jonathan. "'The Past is Present': The Construction of Macau's Historical Legacy." History &

   Memory 21, no. 1 (2009): 63-100.

An Article from an Online Newspaper or News Service:

Note:

   13. Tyler Cowen, "How a Little Inflation Could Help a Lot," New York Times, August 1, 2009, http://

www.nytimes.com/2009/08/02/business/economy/02view.html?scp=1&sq=economic%20history&

st=cse (accessed August 21, 2009).

Short form:

   13. Cowen, "How a Little Inflation."

Bibliography:

Cowen, Tyler. "How a Little Inflation Could Help a Lot." New York Times, August 1, 2009. http://www.

   nytimes.com/2009/08/02/business/economy/02view.html?scp=1&sq=economic%20history&st=

   cse (accessed August 21, 2009).

A Book:

Note:

   7. Jurgen Brauer and Hubert van Tuyll, Castles, Battles, and Bombs: How Economics Explains

Military History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 126.

Short form:

   7. Brauer and van Tuyll, Castles, Battles, and Bombs, 126.

Bibliography:

Brauer, Jurgen and Hubert van Tuyll. Castles, Battles, and Bombs: How Economics Explains

   Military History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

A Chapter from an Edited Book:

Note:

   32. Helen Lucero, "Art of the Santera," in Chicana Traditions: Continuity and Change, ed. Norma

E. Cantú and Olga Nájera-Ramírez, 39 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002).

Short form:

   32. Lucero, "Art of the Santera," 39.

Bibliography:

Lucero, Helen. "Art of the Santera." In Chicana Traditions: Continuity and Change, edited by Norma

   E. Cantú and Olga Nájera-Ramírez, 35-55. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

A Web Site:

Note:

   14. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, "Rallying the Nation," http://www.ushmm.org/

propaganda/themes/rallying-the-nation/.

Short Form:

   14. US Holocaust Memorial Museum, "Rallying the Nation."

Bibliography:

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Rallying the Nation." http://www.ushmm.org/

   propaganda/themes/rallying-the-nation/.

An Online Primary Source from a Database:

Note:

   4. Diary of William Quesenbury Clayton, in American Civil War: Letters and Diaries, http://

solomon.cwld.alexanderstreet.com/ (accessed August 24, 2009).

Short form:

   4. Diary of William Quesenbury Clayton, American Civil War: Letters and Diaries.

Bibliography:

American Civil War: Letters and Diaries. http://solomon.cwld.alexanderstreet.com/.

A Musical Score:

Note:

   27. George Philipp Telemann, Sonata in G Major for Flute and Piano, in Four Sonatas

for Flute and Piano, ed. Milton Wittgenstein, 8. (New York: G. Schirmer, 1953).

Short form:

   27. Telemann, Sonata in G Major, 8.  

Bibliography:

Telemann, George Philipp. Sonata in G Major for Flute and Piano. In Four Sonatas for

   Flute and Piano, ed. Milton Wittgenstein, 3-12. New York: G. Schirmer, 1953.

A Sound Recording from an Online Music Library:

Note:

   16. Carl Nielsen, Clarinet Concerto, Op. 57, Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra, Kees

Bakels, cond. Complete Concertos, Naxos compact disc 8.554189, 2000, http://regis.

naxosmusiclibrary.com (accessed August 25, 2009).

Short form:

   16. Nielsen, Clarinet Concerto.

Bibliography:

Nielsen, Carl. Clarinet Concerto, Op. 57. Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra, Kees Bakels,

   conductor. Complete Concertos. Naxos compact disc 8.554189. 2000. http://regis.

   naxosmusiclibrary.com (accessed August 25, 2009).

A Photograph from an Online Source:

Note:

   26. Edward S. Curtis, "Old Warrior: Arapaho," photogravure, 1927 (Library of Congress,

Washington, D.C.), http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?curt:2:./temp/

~ammem_ppnm:: (accessed August 25, 2009).

Short form:

   26. Curtis, "Old Warrior".

Bibliography:

Curtis, Edward S. "Old Warrior: Arapaho," photogravure, 1927 (Library of Congress,

   Washington, D.C.). http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?curt:2:./temp/

   ~ammem_ppnm:: (accessed August 25, 2009).

A Painting from a Book:

Note:

   5. Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair, oil on canvas, 1940 (Museum of Modern Art, New

York), in Contemporary Women Artists, edited by Laurie Collier Hillstrom and Kevin Hillstrom, 334

(Detroit: St. James Press, 1999).

Short form:

   5. Kahlo, Self-Portrait.

Bibliography:

Kahlo, Frida. Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair, oil on canvas, 1940 (Museum of Modern Art, New

   York). In Contemporary Women Artists, edited by Laurie Collier Hillstrom and Kevin Hillstrom,

   334. Detroit: St. James Press, 1999.

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