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Writing, Citing, Tutoring, and Studying Resources: CSE Style

CSE Citation Style- Literature Cited Examples

Literature Cited

Depending on your professor’s preference, journal titles may either be spelled out or be abbreviated according to the list at References are listed by last name of author.


Bhunia, AK. 2008. Foodborne microbial pathogens: Mechanisms and pathogenesis. New York: Springer.


Esser C, editor. 2016. Environmental influences on the immune system. Vienna: Springer Vienna. [accessed 2016 Aug 12].

Book chapter

Leranth C, MacLusky NJ, Hajszan T. 2008. Sex differences in neuroplasticity. In: Becker J, Berkley KJ, Hampson E, Herman JP, Young EA editors. Sex differences in the brain: from genes to behavior. New York: Oxford. p. 201-226.

Journal article

Holzmann C, Bauer I, Meyer P. 2013. Co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis and cancer in a BRCA1 positive family. European Journal of Medical Genetics 56(10):577-9.

Online journal article

Sheard JM, Ash S, Silburn PA, Kerr GK. 2011. Prevalence of malnutrition in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review. Nutr Rev [Internet]. [cited 2016 Aug 12]; 69(9):520-32. Available from

Course handout

Franco M. 2008. History of diseases and current global health [Internet]. Denver (CO): Regis University CCS

400; [cited 2008 Dec 10]. Available from

Online government publication

Adult vaccinations resources: Standards for Adult Immunization Practice [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); [updated 2016 May 2; cited 2016 Aug 11]. Available from:


Oliver SS. 2012. Context dependent protein interpretation of the histone language [dissertation]. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 238 p.

Conference proceeding

Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Comparative Endocrinology, (ICCE 2013), July 15-19, 2013, Barcelona, Spain. 2014. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 205:1–316.



CSE Citation Style- In-text Citation Examples

In-Text Citations

The word “cited” refers to the date you accessed the page; if a source is available only electronically, put the word “Internet” in square brackets following the title, if a particular table or figure is referenced, include that number in the parentheses.

Journal Articles

In-text citations include the author’s name and date of publication.

Example 1: Koenig (2001) studied the reproductive habits of meerkats in the Kalahari Desert.

Example 2: The optimal skew theory did not apply to meerkat reproduction habits (Koenig 2001).

In a work with three or more authors, use only the first author’s name, followed by the words “et al.,” and then the date. Note: et al. (meaning “and others”) is plural (“Oliveira et al. 2008 have proposed...”).

Example: The results of two-year field experiments showed that transgenic maize with Bacillus

thuringiensis did not produce microbial changes in the soil (Oliveira et al. 2008).


Give the author’s name and year of publication as above. To cite just one chapter or article in an edited book, use the name of the author of the chapter or article rather than the editor’s name.

Example 1: Bhunia (2008) considers the role of virulence genes in this process.

Course Handouts or Laboratory Materials

Give the instructor’s name and year for unpublished handouts or manuals.

Example: The rate of chronic and degenerative diseases has increased (Franco 2008).

Government Agency

Use a shortened version of the title of the webpage.

Example: Adult vaccination rates are extremely low (Adult vaccinations resources 2016).

Corporate or Organization Author

Give the name of the corporation or organization along with the year of publication. If the corporate name is long, you may use an acronym and then list the acronym within brackets before the corporate name in the Literature Cited.

Example: Off label usage of medications for children is approximately 70% (FFCMH 2004).

A Figure or Table

Example: Koenig (2001, Fig. 2) found a relationship between yawning and brain and/or core temperature.

Personal Communication

Telephone conversations, in-person conversations, emails, or unpublished data of a colleague are considered personal communications. These should be acknowledged in the text but not be included in Literature Cited.

Example: Williams confirmed that his results correlated with earlier research (pers. comm.).

Secondary Sources

Cite only original research papers that you have read, not those mentioned in the works of other authors.


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CSE Style Books

Scientific Style and Format : The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2014.8th ed.

T 11 .S386 2014  DML 2nd Floor Reference.

See Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences by Vicky McMillan for additional information.

QH 304 .M36 2012 DML 2nd floor Reference

Creating CSE Citations in the Biological & Medical Database

To save, print, or email citations in Council of Biology Editors format 6th ed. (former ed of CSE) Name Year Sequence format:

  1. Check-mark the boxes of the articles of interest
  2. Click the Save, Print, Email link near the top of the screen
  3. Select the CBE Name Year Sequence format
  4. Click the "Create" button. This will format the citations so you can save, print, or email the citations.
  5. If your browser blocks the pop-up to format the citations, you will be prompted with a link to unblock it

Free Citation Generators

The library does not guarantee the citations created by the following services. It is suggested that all citations are thoroughly checked after creation.

EasyBib- Free MLA citation generator.

Mendeley- Free, downloadable "reference manager".

Zotero-  Free, open source tool to help you collect, organize, and cite your research sources.

KnightCite- Maintained by the Heckman Library at Calvin College. Cite in APA, MLA, and Chicago.

UCSU Citation Builder- Created and managed by NCSU Libraries. Cite in APA, MLA, and Chicago.

Reference Management Tools