Depending on your professor’s preference, journal titles may either be spelled out or be abbreviated according to the list at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. References are listed by last name of author.
Bhunia, AK. 2008. Foodborne microbial pathogens: Mechanisms and pathogenesis. New York: Springer.
Esser C, editor. 2016. Environmental influences on the immune system. Vienna: Springer Vienna. [accessed 2016 Aug 12]. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-7091-1890-0
Leranth C, MacLusky NJ, Hajszan T. 2008. Sex differences in neuroplasticity. In: Becker J, Berkley KJ, Hampson E, Herman JP, Young EA editors. Sex differences in the brain: from genes to behavior. New York: Oxford. p. 201-226.
Holzmann C, Bauer I, Meyer P. 2013. Co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis and cancer in a BRCA1 positive family. European Journal of Medical Genetics 56(10):577-9.
Online journal article
Sheard JM, Ash S, Silburn PA, Kerr GK. 2011. Prevalence of malnutrition in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review. Nutr Rev [Internet]. [cited 2016 Aug 12]; 69(9):520-32. Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00413.x
Franco M. 2008. History of diseases and current global health [Internet]. Denver (CO): Regis University CCS
400; [cited 2008 Dec 10]. Available from http://academic.regis.edu/mfranco/CCS400/CCS400.htm
Online government publication
Adult vaccinations resources: Standards for Adult Immunization Practice [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); [updated 2016 May 2; cited 2016 Aug 11]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/adults/for-practice/standards/index.html
Oliver SS. 2012. Context dependent protein interpretation of the histone language [dissertation]. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 238 p.
Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Comparative Endocrinology, (ICCE 2013), July 15-19, 2013, Barcelona, Spain. 2014. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 205:1–316.
The word “cited” refers to the date you accessed the page; if a source is available only electronically, put the word “Internet” in square brackets following the title, if a particular table or figure is referenced, include that number in the parentheses.
In-text citations include the author’s name and date of publication.
Example 1: Koenig (2001) studied the reproductive habits of meerkats in the Kalahari Desert.
Example 2: The optimal skew theory did not apply to meerkat reproduction habits (Koenig 2001).
In a work with three or more authors, use only the first author’s name, followed by the words “et al.,” and then the date. Note: et al. (meaning “and others”) is plural (“Oliveira et al. 2008 have proposed...”).
Example: The results of two-year field experiments showed that transgenic maize with Bacillus
thuringiensis did not produce microbial changes in the soil (Oliveira et al. 2008).
Give the author’s name and year of publication as above. To cite just one chapter or article in an edited book, use the name of the author of the chapter or article rather than the editor’s name.
Example 1: Bhunia (2008) considers the role of virulence genes in this process.
Course Handouts or Laboratory Materials
Give the instructor’s name and year for unpublished handouts or manuals.
Example: The rate of chronic and degenerative diseases has increased (Franco 2008).
Use a shortened version of the title of the webpage.
Example: Adult vaccination rates are extremely low (Adult vaccinations resources 2016).
Corporate or Organization Author
Give the name of the corporation or organization along with the year of publication. If the corporate name is long, you may use an acronym and then list the acronym within brackets before the corporate name in the Literature Cited.
Example: Off label usage of medications for children is approximately 70% (FFCMH 2004).
A Figure or Table
Example: Koenig (2001, Fig. 2) found a relationship between yawning and brain and/or core temperature.
Telephone conversations, in-person conversations, emails, or unpublished data of a colleague are considered personal communications. These should be acknowledged in the text but not be included in Literature Cited.
Example: Williams confirmed that his results correlated with earlier research (pers. comm.).
Cite only original research papers that you have read, not those mentioned in the works of other authors.
Research Help hours
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Scientific Style and Format : The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2014.8th ed.
T 11 .S386 2014 DML 2nd Floor Reference.
See Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences by Vicky McMillan for additional information.
QH 304 .M36 2012 DML 2nd floor Reference
To save, print, or email citations in Council of Biology Editors format 6th ed. (former ed of CSE) Name Year Sequence format:
The library does not guarantee the citations created by the following services. It is suggested that all citations are thoroughly checked after creation.
EasyBib- Free MLA citation generator.
Mendeley- Free, downloadable "reference manager".
Zotero- Free, open source tool to help you collect, organize, and cite your research sources.
KnightCite- Maintained by the Heckman Library at Calvin College. Cite in APA, MLA, and Chicago.
UCSU Citation Builder- Created and managed by NCSU Libraries. Cite in APA, MLA, and Chicago.