Here are a few examples of how to cite online sources in APA format. For further examples, see chapter 7 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), located behind the Reference Desk at DML. The Manual states “Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis)”, and "In general, it is not necessary to include database information."(p.192). If you have the article's citation but don't know if there is an assigned DOI, you can use the CrossRef guest query (http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/) to see if one is available.
An Article with DOI assigned
Shultz, S., MacFabe, D., Martin, S., Jackson, J., Taylor, R., Boon, F., . . . Cain, D. (2009).
Intracerebroventricular injections of the enteric bacterial metabolic product propionic acid impair
cognition and sensorimotor ability in the Long–Evans rat: Further development of a rodent
model of autism. Behavioural Brain Research, 200(1), 33-41. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.12.023
An Article from an Online Article Database – with no DOI assigned (Note: must look up URL of journal's web site)
Caspi, A., Chajut, E., & Saporta, K. (2008). Participation in class and in online discussions:
Gender differences. Computers & Education, 50(3), 718‐724. Retrieved from http://www.elsevier.com/
An Article from an Online Periodical - with no DOI assigned
Yi, K. (2003). Can vertical specialization explain the growth of world trade? Journal of Political Economy,
111(1), 52‐102. Retrieved from http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/JPE/journal/issues/v111n1/
An Article from an Online Newspaper or News Service
Helft, M. (2008, July 22). Yahoo deal wards off proxy fight. The New York Times. Retrieved from
An Online Book
Rookes, P., & Willson, J. (2005). Perception: Theory, development and organisation. London: Routledge.
Retrieved from http://www.NetLibrary.com
A Professional or Personal Web Site
Hurst, C., & Otis, R. (2008). Carol Hurst’s children’s literature site. Retrieved from http://www.carolhurst.com/
An Online Government Publication
U.S. Department of State. (2008, January). Background note: Czech Republic. Retrieved from
Here are a few examples of how to cite books, articles, and other sources in APA format. For a complete discussion and further examples, see chapter 7 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), located behind the Reference Desk at DML.
Sigler, W. F., & Sigler, J. W. (1996). Fishes of Utah: A natural history. Salt Lake City, UT: University of
Willms, D. G., Johnson, N. A., & White, N. A. (1992). A qualitative study of family practice physician
health promotion activities. In W. L. Miller & B. F. Crabtree (Eds.), Doing qualitative research (pp.
189‐204). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Articles from Journals Paginated by Volume (page numbers continue from the previous issue)
Moberly, N. J., & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Ruminative self‐focus and negative affect: An experience
sampling study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 314‐323.
Articles from Journals Paginated by Issue (page numbers restart at 1 in every issue)
Flood, M., & Newman, A. M. (2007). Obesity in older adults: Synthesis of findings and
recommendations for clinical practice. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 33 (12), 19‐35.
Chass, M. (2003, February 18). Heatstroke kills minor leaguer at Orioles’ Florida camp. The New
York Times, pp. D1‐D2.
Dulbecco, R. (Ed.). (1997). Encyclopedia of human biology (2nd ed., Vols. 1‐9). San Diego, CA:
U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Helping your child learn math. Jessup, MD: Education
Dearden, M. (Writer), & Smith, J. (Writer/Director/Producer). (1981). Selection in action: Natural
selection [videorecording]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)
Call number: BF76.7 .P83 2010
Multiple copies are available in the Dayton Memorial Library. If you need assistance, please contact the Research Help Desk.